Education Policy: Research: Bibliography:

Bilingual Education

The publications in this brief bibliography are a starting point: they introduce new researchers to various facets of the topic, with emphasis on the role of states, and to some of the principal authors and publications. This is one section of a Selected Bibliography of Publications on Education Policy.

* Items with an asterisk represent together a basic introduction to this topic.

*August, Diane, and Kenji Hakuta, eds. Improving Schools for Language Minority Children: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

Baker, Colin. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 4th ed. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters, 2006.

Baron, Dennis. The English-Only Question: An Official Language for Americans. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Blanton, Carlos Kevin. The Strange Career of Bilingual Education in Texas, 1836-1981. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2007.

*Crawford, James. Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice. 4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Educational Services, 1999.

*Cummings, Jim. Empowering Minority Students. Sacramento, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education, 1989.

Duke, Robert Harold. "Bilingual Education, Federalism, and the Political Culture of American Public Education, 1964-1980.” Ph.D. dissertation, Western Michigan University, 2008. Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Accession Order No. AAT 3323521.

Epstein, Noel. Language, Ethnicity, and the Schools: Policy Alternatives for Bilingual-Bicultural Education. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership, George Washington University, 1977.

García, Ofelia and Colin Baker, eds. Bilingual Education: An Introductory Reader. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 2007.

García, Ofelia, and Joshua A. Fishman, eds. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997.

Genesee, Fred, et al., eds. Educating English Language Learners: A Synthesis of Research Evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Anne Danenberg, Patricia Sanchez. Beyond "Bilingual" Education: New Immigrants and Public School Policies in California. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

Glenn, Charles L. "What Does The National Research Council Study Tell Us About Educating Language Minority Children?" in READ Perspectives 4, no. 1-2 (1997). Notes: Web page available at .

González, Josué M., Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2008.

Greene, Jay. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education. Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Center, 1998.

*Hakuta, Kenji. Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

*Krashen, Stephen D. Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates, 1996.

Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education? ERIC Digest." Web page, Available at

Levin, Betsy. "An Analysis of the Federal Attempt to Regulate Bilingual Education: Protecting Civil Rights or Controlling Curriculum?" Journal of Law and Society 12 (1983).

May, Stephen. "Bilingual/Immersion Education: What the Research Tells Us." in Encyclopedia of Language and Education. eds. Nancy H. Hornberger. Springer US, 2008: 1483-1498.

Menken, Kate. English Learners Left Behind: Standardized Testing as Language Policy. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 2008.

Moran, Rachel F. "The Politics of Discretion: Federal Intervention in Bilingual Education." California Law Review 76 (1988): 1249-1352.

*Ramirez, J. David, Sandra D. Yuen, and Dena R. Ramey. Final Report: Longitudinal Study of Structured Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit, and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language Minority Children, Vol. 1 and 2. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International, 1991.

Reyes, Luis O. "The Aspira Consent Decree: A Thirtieth-Anniversary Retrospective of Bilingual Education in New York City." Harvard Educational Review 76, no. 3 (2006): 369-400.

San Miguel, Guadelupe Jr. Contested Policy: The Rise and Fall of Bilingual Education in the United States, 1960-2001. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 2006.

Santiago, Isaura Santiago. "Aspira v Board of Education Revisited." American Journal of Education 95 (1986): 149-199.

*Schneider, Susan Gilbert. Revolution, Reaction, or Reform: The 1974 Bilingual Education Act. New York: Las Americas Publishing Company, 1976.

*U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Equal Educational Opportunity and Nondiscrimination for Students with Limited English Proficiency: Federal Enforcement of Title VI and Lau v Nichols. Washington, DC: The Commission on Civil Rights, 1997. Notes: Volume 3 of the equal educational opportunity project series.

*Watras, Joseph. "Bilingual Education and the Campaign for Federal Aid." American Educational History Journal 27, no. 1 (2000): 81-87.

*Willig, Ann. "A Meta-Analysis of Selected Studies on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education." Review of Educational Research 55, no. 3 (1985): 269-318.