Education Policy: Research: Bibliography:

Selected Bibliography of Publications on Education Policy

The publications in this brief bibliography are a starting point: they introduce new researchers to various facets of federal education policy, with emphasis on the role of states, and to some of the principal authors and publications. (A PDF version is also available.)

The publications are organized below under six topics: General Works; State Advocacy on Federal Education Policy; Economically Disadvantaged Students-Title I; Standards, Assessments, and Accountability; Students with Disabilities; and Bilingual Education.

If you would like to view or print the entries for individual topics, click here, then select your topic.

* Items with an asterisk represent together a basic introduction to each topic.

General Works

Included in this section are works on the history of education in general, school reform, methodology, the federal role in education, and intergovernmental structure and policy.

*Allen, Hollis P. The Federal Government and Education [1785-1950]: The Original and Complete Study of Education for the Hoover Commission Task Force on Public Welfare. New York: McGraw Hill, 1950.

Ambach, Gordon M. "The Essential Federal Role." in Voices From the Field: 30 Expert Opinions on America 2000, The Bush Administration Strategy to "Reinvent" America's Schools. Gordon M. Ambach, and others. Washington, DC: William T. Grant Foundation, 1991.

Berman, Paul, and Milbrey McLaughlin. "Federal Support for Improved Educational Practice." in The Federal Interest in Financing Schooling. ed. Michael Timpane, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1978.

Birman, B., and Alan L. Ginsburg. "The Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: New Directions and Continuing Concerns." The Urban Lawyer 14, no. 3 (1982): 472-500.

Brademas, John, and Lynne P. Brown. The Politics of Education: Conflict and Consensus on Capitol Hill. Norman, OK: Oklahoma University Press, 1987. Notes: Julian J. Rothbaum Distinguished Lecture Series.

Center on Education Policy. A Brief History of the Federal Role in Education: Why It Began and Why It's Still Needed. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy, 2000?

Chadima, Steven. Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education: An Examination of Alternate Federal Roles. Washington, DC: United States Congressional Budget Office, 1977.

Cohen, David K. and Susan L. Moffitt. The Ordeal of Equality: Did Federal Regulations Fix the Schools? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Congressional Conference Committee Reports. Available in the Congressional Record and Library of Congress Thomas (104th Congress forward) website.

*Congressional Quarterly Service. Education for a Nation. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Service, 1972.

*———. Federal Role in Education. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Service, 1967.

*Congressional Research Service. Congressional Research Service Reports. Washington: Library of Congress.

*Cross, Christopher T. Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. New York: Teachers College Press, 2004.

DeBray-Pelot, Elizabeth and Patrick McGuinn. "The New Politics of Education: Analyzing the Federal Education Policy Landscape in the Post-NCLB Era." Educational Policy 23, no. 1 (2009): 15-42.

Elmore, Richard F., and Milbrey Wallin McLaughlin. Steady Work: Policy, Practice, and the Reform of American Education. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation, 1988.

Federal Interagency Committee on Education (FICE). Toward a Comprehensive Federal Education Policy. Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Committee on Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977-1978.

*Gaither, Milton. American Educational History Revisited: A Critique of Progress. New York: Teachers College Press, 2003.

Gordon, David T., ed. A Nation Reformed? American Education 20 Years After A Nation At Risk. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2003.

———. "The Transformation of Federal Education Policy." in Exploring the Johnson Years. ed. Robert A. Devine, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981.

*Graham, Hugh Davis. The Uncertain Triumph: Federal Education Policy in the Kennedy and Johnson Years. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Green, Edith. Federal Government and Education: A Report on the Study of Education Programs in Which the Federal Government Is Involved. Washington, DC: House of Representatives, 1963.

Halperin, Samuel. Essays on Federal Education Policy. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership, George Washington University, 1975.

*Halperin, Samuel, and George R. Kaplan, eds. Federalism at the Crossroads: Improving Educational Policymaking. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership, George Washington University, 1976.

Jennings, Jack, ed. The Future of the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy, 2001. Notes: a conference volume, including papers by Carl Kaestle and Margaret Goertz.

*———. National Issues in Education: The Past Is Prologue. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa International, 1993.

Kaestle, Carl F. "Education." in Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. eds. D. C. Bacon, R. H. Davidson, and M. Keller, 682-91. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Kaestle, Carl and Alyssa E. Lodewick, eds. To Educate a Nation: Federal and National Strategies of School Reform. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2007.

*Kaestle, Carl F., and Marshall S. Smith. "The Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education, 1940-1980." Harvard Educational Review 52, no. 4 (1982): 384-408.

Keppel, Francis. "Perspectives on the Federal Role in Education." Alumni Bulletin, HGSE 32, no. 3 (1988): 1-15.

Kirst, Michael W. Politics of Education at the Local, State, and Federal Levels. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Pub. Corp., 1970.

Levin, Betsy. The Courts As Educational Policymakers and Their Impact on Federal Programs: Prepared for the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1977.

Manna, Paul. "How Governance of K-12 Education Influences Policy Outputs and Student Outcomes in the United States." Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, August 31 to September 3, 2006. Notes: Web page available at

———. School's In: Federalism and the National Education Agenda. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2006.

McAndrews, Lawrence J. The Era of Education: The Presidents and the Schools, 1965-2001, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL, University of Illinois Press, 2008.

McDonnell, Lorraine M. "Repositioning Politics in Education's Circle of Knowledge." Educational Researcher 38, no. 6 (2009): 417-427.

———. "The Changing Nature of Federalism in Education: A Paradox and Some Unanswered Questions." Paper prepared for The States' Impact on Federal Education Policy invitational conference, Washington, DC, May 9, 2008. Notes: A PDF version is also available.

McGuinn, Patrick J. No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2006.

Michael, Deanna L. Jimmy Carter as Educational Policymaker: Equal Opportunity and Efficiency. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2008.

Munger, Frank, and Richard Fenno. National Politics and Federal Aid to Education. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1962.

Nelson, Adam. The Elusive Ideal: Equal Educational Opportunity and the Federal Role in Boston's Public Schools, 1950-1985. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2005.

*Quattlebaum, Charles A. Federal Aid to Elementary and Secondary Education: An Analytic Study of the Issue, Its Background and Relevant Legislative Proposals, With a Compilation of Arguments Pro and Con, Statistical Data, and Digests of Pertinent Reports and Surveys [1919-1948]. Chicago, IL: Public Administrative Service, 1948.

Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education, New York: Basic Books, 2010.

———. "The National Agenda in Elementary and Secondary Education." in Setting National Priorities: The 2000 Election and Beyond. eds. Henry J. Aaron, and Robert D. Reischauer, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

*———. The Troubled Crusade: American Education 1945-1980. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Ravitch, Diane, and Maris A. Vinovskis, eds. Learning From the Past: What History Teaches Us About School Reform. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Rhodes, Jesse Hessler. "Making the Educational State: Agenda-Setting, Federal-State Regulations, and the Transformation of Educational Policymaking and Governance in the United States, 1975-2007." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 2008. Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Accession Order No. AAT 3362880.

*Scheiber, Harry N. "Federalism and the States." in Encyclopedia of the United States in the Twentieth Century. ed. Stanley Kutler, and others, 427-50. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996.

Spring, Joel. The Politics of Education Policy. New York: Routledge, 2011.

———. The Sorting Machine Revisited: National Educational Policy Since 1945. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1989.

Sunderman, Gail L. "Evidence of the Impact of School Reform on Systems Governance and Educational Bureaucracies in the United States." Review of Research in Education 34, no. 1 (2010): 226-253.

Sundquist, James L. Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1968.

Tiedt, Sidney W. Role of the Federal Government in Education. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.

*Wirt, Frederick M., and Michael W. Kirst. The Political Dynamics of American Education. 3rd ed. Richmond, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation, 2005.


State Advocacy on Federal Education Policy

Bailey, Stephen. The Office of Education and the Education Act of 1965. New York: Bibbs Merrill Company, 1966.

*Bailey, Stephen Kemp. Education Interest Groups in the Nation's Capital. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1975.

*Campbell, Rould F., Gerald E. Sroufe, and D. H. Layton, eds. Strengthening State Departments of Education. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1967.

Clark, David L., and Terry Astuto. "The Significance and Permanence of Changes in Federal Education Policy." Educational Researcher 15 (1986): 4-13.

Conlan, Timothy J. Intergovernmentalizing the Classroom: Federal Involvement in Elementary and Secondary Education. Washington, DC: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1981.

*DeBray, Elizabeth. Politics, Ideology, and Congress: The Formation of Federal Education Policy During the Clinton and Bush Administrations. New York: Teachers College Press, in press.

Firestone, William A., Susan H. Fuhrman, and Michael W. Kirst. Progress of Reform: An Appraisal of State Education Initiatives. Washington, DC: Center for Policy Research in Education, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center, 1989.

Epstein, Noel, ed. Who's In Charge Here? The Tangled Web of School Governance and Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

Goertz, Margaret E., Robert E. Floden, and Jennifer O'Day. Studies of Education Reform. Systemic Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination, 1995-1996.

Herrington, Carolyn, and Francis Fowler. "Rethinking the State and Federal Role in Educational Governance." in American Educational Governance on Trial: Change and Challenges, 102nd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. eds. William Lowe Boyd, and Debra Miretzky, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Kantor, Harvey. "Education, Social Reform, and the State: ESEA and Federal Education Policy in the 1960s." American Journal of Education 100, no. 1 (1991): 47-83.

Kimbrough, Jackie, and Paul Hill. The Aggregate Effects of Federal Education Programs. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1981.

Kirst, Michael W. Evaluating State Education Reforms: A Special Legislative Report. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures, 1987.

———. "Recent Research on Intergovernmental Relations in Education Policy." Educational Researcher 24 (1995): 18-22.

*Kirst, Michael W., Gail Meister, and Stephen R. Rowley. Policy Issue Networks: Their Influence on State Policymaking. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1984.

Knapp, Michael, and others. "Cumulative Effects of Federal Education Policies at the Local Level." Education and Urban Society 15, no. 4 (1983): 479-499.

Lee, Jaekyung. "Trick or Treat: New Ecology of Education Accountability System in the USA." Journal of Education Policy 25, no. 1 (2010): 73-93.

Lusi, Susan Follett. The Role of State Departments of Education in Complex School Reform. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1997.

Massell, Diane, Michael W. Kirst, and Margaret Hoppe. Persistence and Change: Standards-Based Reform in Nine States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center, 1997.

McBeath, Jerry, Maria Elena Reyes and Mary F. Ehrlander. Education Reform in the American States. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc., 2008.

*McDonnell, Lorraine M., and Milbrey W. McLaughlin. Educational Policy and the Role of the States. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1982. Notes: Prepared for the National Institute of Education, R-2755-NIE.

McLaughlin, Milbrey. "States and the New Federalism." Harvard Educational Review 52 (1982): 564-83.

Milstein, Mike M. Impact and Response: Federal Aid and State Education Agencies. New York: Teachers College Press, 1976.

Mokher, Christine G. "Do 'Education Governors' Matter? The Case of Statewide P-16 Education Councils." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 32, no. 4 (2010): 476-497.

Murphy, Jerome T. Grease the Squeaky Wheel: A Report on the Implementation of Title V of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Grants to Strengthen State Departments of Education. Center for Educational Policy Research, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 1973.

National Education Association. Federal-State Relations in Education. Washington, DC: Educational Policies Commission, NEA of the US and the American Association of School Administrators and Problems and Policies Committee, American Council on Education, 1945.

Orland, Martin, and R. J. Goettel. "States and Implementation of Federal Categorical Programs in Education." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 2 (1982): 141-54.

Peterson, Paul E., and Barry G. Rabe. "The Role of Interest Groups in the Formation of Educational Policy: Past Practice and Future Trends." Teachers College Record (1983): 708-29.

Pressman, Jeffrey L., and Aaron Wildavsky. Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973.

Shelley, Bryan. "Rebels and Their Causes: State Resistance to No Child Left Behind." Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. 3 (2008): 444-468.

Shober, Arnold F. Splintered Accountability: State Governance and Education Reform. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2010.

*Timar, Thomas B. "The Institutional Role of State Education Departments: A Historical Perspective." American Journal of Education 105 (1997): 231-260.

Vergari, Sandra. "Safeguarding Federalism in Education Policy in Canada and the United States." Publius: The Journal of Federalism 40, no. 3 (2010): 534-557.

Wong, Kenneth K. "Federalism Revised: The Promise and Challenge of the No Child Left Behind Act." Public Administration Review 68, no. S1 (2008): S175-S185.


Economically Disadvantaged Students – Title I

*Bailey, Stephen K., and Edith K. Mosher. ESEA: The Office of Education Administers a Law. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1968.

Braun, Henry I., Aubrey Wang, Frank Jenkins, Elliot Weinbaum. "The Black-White Achievement Gap: Do State Policies Matter?" Education Policy Analysis Archives 14, no. 8 (2006): 1-110.

Borman, Geoffrey and Maritza Dowling. "Schools and Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis of Coleman's Equality of Educational Opportunity Data." Teachers College Record 112, no. 5 (2010): 1201-1246.

*Coleman, James S., and others. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966.

*Cooper, Bruce S. and Denis P. Doyle, eds. Federal Aid to the Disadvantaged: What Future for Chapter 1? London: Falmer Press, 1988.

Darling-Hammond, Linda. The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity will Determine Our Future. New York: Economic Policy Institute and Teachers College, 2010.

*DeBray, Elizabeth H., Kathryn A. McDermott, and Priscilla Wohlstetter, "Federalism Reconsidered: The Case of the No Child Left Behind Act." Peabody Journal of Education 80, no. 2 (2005): 1-188. Notes: a special issue of the Peabody Journal of Education.

Farkas, George L., and L. Shane Hall. "Can Title I Attain Its Goal?" Brookings Papers on Education Policy, ed. Diane Ravitch. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2000.

Grubb, W. Norton. The Money Myth: School Resources, Outcomes, and Equity. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2009.

*Halperin, Samuel. "ESEA Comes of Age: Some Historical Reflections." Educational Leadership 36, no. 5 (1979): 349-53.

Harrington, Michael. The Other America: Poverty in the United States. New York: MacMillan, 1962.

Howard University, and Institute for the Study of Educational Policy. Equal Educational Opportunity: More Promise Than Progress. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1977.

Howe, Kenneth Ross. Understanding Equal Educational Opportunity: Social Justice, Democracy, and Schooling. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 1997.

Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Education for Children of the Poor: A Study of the Origins and Implementation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1978.

*Jennings, John F., ed. National Issues in Education: Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Bloomington, IN.: Phi Delta Kappa International, 1995.

Kalifeh, Phyllis, Lora Cohen-Vogel and Saralyn Grass. "The Federal Role in Early Childhood Education: Evolution in the Goals, Governance, and Policy Instruments of Project Head Start." Educational Policy 25, no. 1 (2011): 36-64.

*Katz, Michael, ed. The "Underclass" Debate: Views From History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Kirst, Michael W., and Richard Jung. "The Utility of a Longitudinal Approach in Assessing Implementation: A Thirteen-Year View of Title I, ESEA." in Studying Implementation: Methodological and Administrative Issues. Walter Williams. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1982.

Kuntz, Kathryn R. "A Lost Legacy: Head Start's Origins in Community Action." in Critical Perspectives on Project Head Start: Revisioning the Hope and Challenge. eds. Jeanne Ellsworth, and Lynda J. Ames. Albany, NY: University of New York Press, 1998.

LeTendre, Mary Jean. "The Continuing Evolution of a Federal Role in Compensatory Education." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 13 (1991): 328-34; 397-415.

Levin, Henry M. "A Decade of Policy Developments in Improving Education and Training for Low-Income Populations." in A Decade of Federal Antipoverty Programs: Achievements, Failures, and Lessons. ed. Robert H. Haveman. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

*———. The Educationally Disadvantaged: A National Crisis. Stanford, CA: Institute for Education Finance and Governance, Stanford University, 1985.

Levin, Henry M., and Mun C. Tsang. Federal Grants and National Educational Policy. Stanford, CA: Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance, 1982.

Manna, Paul. "Federal Aid to Elementary and Secondary Education: Premises, Effects, and Major Lessons Learned.” Paper commissioned by the Center on Education Policy, Washington, DC, for its project on Rethinking the Federal Role in Education. Notes: Web page available at

*McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin. Evaluation and Reform: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Title I. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 1975.

———. "Implementation of ESEA Title I: A Problem of Compliance." Teachers College Record 77 (1976): 397-415.

Miech, Edward. "The Necessary Gentleman: Francis Keppel's Leadership in Getting Education's Act Together." Master's thesis, Harvard University, Graduate School of Education, 2000.

*Mosteller, F., and Moynihan, Daniel P., eds. On Equality of Educational Opportunity. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1972.

Murphy, Jerome T. "Title I of ESEA: The Politics of Implementing Federal Educational Reform." Harvard Educational Review 41 (1971): 35-63.

Natriello, Gary, Edward L. McDill, and Aaron M. Pallas. Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing Against Catastrophe. New York: Teachers College Press, 1990.

Oakes, Jeannie. Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality, 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Rotberg, Iris, and James Harvey. Federal Policy Options for Improving Education of Low-Income Students. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1993.

Sutton, Jeffrey S. "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez and Its Aftermath." Virginia Law Review 94, no. 8 (2008): 1963-1986.

Timar, Thomas. "Federal Education Policy and Practice: Building Organizational Capacity Through Chapter 1." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 16, no. 1 (1994): 51-66.

United States, National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children. Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Washington, DC: United States National Advisory Council on the Education of Disadvantaged Children. Notes: Annual reports available for many years.

*Vinovskis, Maris A. "Do Federal Compensatory Education Programs Really Work? A Brief Historical Analysis of Title I and Head Start." American Journal of Education 107, no. 3 (1999): 187-209.

———. The Birth of Head Start: Preschool Education Policies in the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

*Washington Research Project and NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Title I of ESEA: Is It Helping Poor Children? Washington, DC: 1969.

Wayson, William. "ESEA: Decennial Views of the Revolution. II. The Negative Side." Phi Delta Kappan 57 (1975): 151-56.

Welner, Kevin Grant. Legal Rights, Local Wrongs: When Community Control Collides With Educational Equity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.

*Zigler, Edward, and Susan Muenchow. Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Zigler, Edward, and Sally J. Styfco, eds. Head Start and Beyond: A National Plan for Extended Childhood Intervention. Riverdale, NJ: Yale University Press, 1993.


Standards, Assessments and Accountability

Adams, Jacob E. and Michael W. Kirst. ”New Demands and Concepts for Educational Accountability: Striving for Results in an Era of Excellence." eds. Joseph Murphy, and Karen Seashore Lewis. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1999, pp. 463-489.

*Atkin, J. Myron, and Ernest R. House. "The Federal Role in Curriculum Development, 1950-1980." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 3, no. 5 (1981): 5-36.

Bracey, Gerald W. Put to the Test: An Educator's and Consumer's Guide to Standardized Testing. Bloomington, IN: Center for Professional Development & Services, Phi Delta Kappa International, 2002. Notes: revised edition.

Bunzel, John H., ed. Challenge to American Schools: The Case for Standards and Values. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Carnoy, Martin, Richard Elmore, and Leslie Santee Siskin, eds. The New Accountability: High Schools and High Stakes Testing. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.

*Cronbach, Lee J. Toward Reform of Program Evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass and Co., 1980.

Darling-Hammond, Linda. "National Standards and Assessments: Will They Improve Education?" Teachers College Record (1994): 478-510.

Elmore, Richard and Rothman, Robert. Teaching, Testing and Learning, Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academy Press.

*Fuhrman, Susan H. and Richard Elmore, eds. Redesigning Accountability Systems for Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2005.

Glass, Gene V. "Standards and Criteria." Journal of Educational Measurement 15 (1978): 237-261.

*Goertz, Margaret E. "The Federal Role in an Era of Standards-Based Reform." in The Future of the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: A Collection of Papers. Washington, DC: Center for Education Policy, 2001.

*Goertz, Margaret E., Mark C. Duffy, and Kerstin Carlson Le Floch. Assessment and Accountability Systems in the 50 States, 1999-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center, 2001.

Goslin, David. The Search for Ability: Standardized Testing in Social Perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1963.

Grant, S.G., ed. Measuring History: Cases of State-Level Testing Across the United States. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc., 2006.

Hamilton, Laura, Brian Stecher and Kun Yuan. "Standards-based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions.” RAND Corporation report RP-1384, 2008. Notes: Web page available at

Haney, Walter, and George Madaus. "Making Sense of the Competency Testing Movement." Harvard Educational Review 48, no. 4 (1978): 462-484.

*Herman, Joan L. and Edward H. Haertel, eds. Uses and Misuses of Data for Educational Accountability and Improvement. Chicago, IL: National Society for the Study of Education, 2005.

*Jaeger, Richard M. and Carol K. Tittle, eds. Minimum Competency Achievement Testing: Motives, Models, Measures, and Consequences. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1980.

*Jennings, John F. Why National Standards and Tests?: Politics and the Quest for Better Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998. Notes: ebook, available online.

Jones, M. Gail. The Unintended Consequences of High-Stakes Testing. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Kincheloe, Joe L., and Danny Weil, eds. Standards and Schooling in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001. Notes: 3 volumes.

Kirst, Michael W. Accountability: Implications for State and Local Policymakers. Washington, DC: Information Services, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, 1990.

*Kohn, Alfie. The Case Against Standardized Testing: Raising the Scores, Ruining the Schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

*Ladd, Helen F., ed. Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1996.

McNeil, Linda M. Contradictions of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. New York, NY: Routledge, 2000.

Meier, Deborah, and George Wood, eds. Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act Is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2004.

*Messick, Samuel, Albert E. Beaton, Frederic Lord. National Assessment of Educational Progress Reconsidered: A New Design for a New Era. Princeton, NJ: National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1983. Notes: NAEP report, no. 83-1.

Millman, Jason, ed. Grading Teachers, Grading Schools: Is Student Achievement a Valid Education Measure? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1997.

Murphy, Jerome, and David Cohen. "Accountability in Education: The Michigan Experience." The Public Interest 36 (1974): 53-81.

*National Council on Education Standards and Testing. Raising Standards for American Education: A Report to Congress, the Secretary of Education, the National Education Goals Panel, and the American People. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

National Research Council, Committee on Title I Testing and Assessment. Testing, Teaching, and Learning: A Guide for States and School Districts. eds. Richard F. Elmore, and Robert Rothman. Washington, DC: National Academy Press: U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center, 2000.

National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Achieving High Educational Standards for All: Conference Summary. eds. Timothy Ready, Christopher Edley, Jr., and Catherine E. Snow. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

*Nettles, Arie L., and Michael T. Nettles, eds. Measuring Up: Challenges Minorities Face in Educational Assessment. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

O'Day, Jennifer A. "Complexity, Accountability, and School Improvement." Harvard Educational Review 72, no. 3 (2002): 293-329.

Pellegrino, James W., Lee R. Jones, and Karen J. Mitchell, eds. Grading the Nation's Report Card: Evaluating NAEP and Transforming the Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, U.S. Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, ERIC, 1999.

Peterson, Paul E., and Martin R. West, eds. No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practices of School Accountability. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

Porter, Andrew C. "Creating a System of School Process Indicators." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 13(1991):13-29.

Porter, Andrew C., Morgan S. Polikoff and John Smithson. "Is There a De-Facto National Intended Curriculum?: Evidence from State Content Standards." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31, no. 3 (2009): 238-268.

Ravitch, Diane, ed. Debating the Future of American Education: Do We Need National Standards and Assessments?: Report of a Conference Sponsored By the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995.

* ———. National Standards in American Education: A Citizen's Guide. Washington, DC: Brookings, 1995.

Ryan, Katherine E. and Lorrie A. Shepherd, eds. The Future of Test-Based Educational Accountability. New York: Routledge, 2008.

*Schwartz, Robert B., and Marion A. Robinson. "Goals 2000 and the Standards Movement." Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2000, ed. Diane Ravitch. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2000.

*Smith, Marshall S., and Jennifer O'Day. "Systemic School Reform" in The Politics of Curriculum and Testing: The 1990 Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. eds. Susan Fuhrman and Betty Malen. New York: Falmer Press, 1991.

Spillane, James P. Standards Deviation: How Schools Misunderstand Education Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Stotsky, Sandra, ed. What's at Stake in the K-12 Standards Wars: A Primer for Educational Policy Makers. New York: P. Lang, 2000.

Sunderman, Gail L. and James S. Kim. "The Expansion of Federal Power and the Politics of Implementing the No Child Left Behind Act." Teachers College Record 109, no. 5 (2007): 1057-1085.

Superfine, Benjamin Michael. "The Politics of Accountability: The Rise and Fall of Goals 2000." American Journal of Education 112, no. 1 (2005): 10-44.

*Tyler, Ralph. "The Impact of External Testing Programs." in The Impact and Improvement of School Testing Programs. ed. Warren Findley. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and the Workforce. Overview of Testing/Standards and Assessments in the States: Hearing Before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held in Washington, DC, February 23, 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., 1999.

*———. National Education Goals Panel. The National Education Goals Report: Executive Summary: Commonly Asked Questions about Standards and Assessments. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel, 1996.

Wiggins, Grant P. Assessing Student Performance: Exploring the Purpose and Limits of Testing. 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993.

*———. Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performances. 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998.

Wynne, Edward. Politics of School Accountability: Public Information About Public Schools. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Pub. Corp., 1972.


Students with Disabilities

*Ballard, Joseph, Bruce A. Ramirez, and Frederick J. Weintraub, eds. Special Education in America: Its Legal and Governmental Foundations. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children, 1982.

Bartlett, Larry. "Disciplining Handicapped Students: Legal Issues in Light of Honig v Doe." Exceptional Children 55, no. 4 (1989): 357-366.

*Berkowitz, Edward D. "A Historical Preface to the Americans with Disabilities Act." Journal of Policy History 6, no. 1 (1994): 96-119.

*Braddock, David, ed. Disability at the Dawn of the 21st Century: And the State of the States. 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002.

Brauen, Marsha L. Issues and Options in Outcomes-Based Accountability for Students with Disabilities. Rockville, MD: Westat, Inc., 1994.

Briggs, Peter G. A Perspective on Change: The Administration of Title I of ESEA. Washington, DC: The Planar Corporation, 1973.

Broadwell, C. A., and J. Walden. "Free and Appropriate Public Education After Rowley: An Analysis of Recent Court Decisions." Journal of Law and Education 17 (1988): 35-51.

Citron, Christiane H. The Rights of Handicapped Students. Denver, CO: Policy Analysis and Research, Education Commission of the States, 1982.

Cremins, James J. Legal and Political Issues in Special Education. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, 1983.

Gerber, Michael M., and Deborah Levine Donnerstein. "Educating All Children: Tens Years Later." Exceptional Children 56, no. 1 (1989): 17-21.

*Gilhool, Thomas K. "The Right to an Effective Education: From Brown to PL 94-142 and Beyond." in Beyond Separate Education: Quality Education for All. eds. Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky, and Alan Gartner. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co., 1989.

Hardman, Michael L. and Shirley Dawson. "The Impact of Federal Public Policy on Curriculum and Instruction for Students with Disabilities in the General Classroom." Preventing School Failure 52, no. 2 (2008): 5-11.

Hargrove, Erwin C. "Regulation and Schools: The Implementation of Equal Education for Handicapped Children." Peabody Journal of Education 60, no. 4 (1983): 1-126.

*Hehir, Thomas, and Thomas Latus, eds. Special Education at the Century's End: Evolution of Theory and Practice Since 1970. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review, 1992. Notes: Reprint series, vol. 23.

*Kauffman, James M. "The Regular Education Initiative as Reagan-Bush Education Policy: A Trickle-Down Theory of Education of the Hard-to-Teach." Journal of Special Education 23, no. 3 (1989): 256-278.

Kleinhammer-Tramill, Jeannie, James Tramill and Heather Brace. "Contexts, Funding History, and Implications for Evaluating the Office of Special Education Program's Investment in Personnel Preparation." Journal of Special Education 43, no. 4 (2010): 195-205.

Levin, Betsy. "Equal Educational Opportunity for Special Pupil Populations and the Federal Role." West Virginia Law Review 85 (1982-1983): 159-198.

Lippman, Leopold, and I. Ignacy Goldberg. Right to Education: Anatomy of the Pennsylvania Case and Its Implications for Exceptional Children. New York: Teachers College Press, 1973.

McCarthy, M. "Minimum Competency Testing and Handicapped Students." Exceptional Children 47, no. 3 (1980): 166-173.

McClung, M., and D. Pullin. "Competency Testing and Handicapped Students." Clearinghouse Review 11 (1978): 922-927.

*McDonnell, Lorraine M., Margaret J. McLaughlin, and Patricia Morison, eds. Educating One and All: Students With Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

*McGuire, C. Kent. State and Federal Programs for Special Student Populations. Denver, CO: Education Finance Center, Education Commission of the States, 1982.

Shores, Elizabeth F. "The Arkansas Children's Colony at Conway: A Springboard for Federal Policy on Special Education." Arkansas Historical Quarterly LVII, no. 4 (1998): 408-434.

*Singer, Judith A., and John A. Butler. "The Education for All Handicapped Children Act: Schools as Agents of Social Reform." Harvard Educational Review 57, no. 2 (1987): 125-152.

Skiba, Russell J. et al. "Achieving Equity in Special Education: History, Status, and Current Challenges." Exceptional Children 74, no. 3 (2008): 264-288.

Smith, Stephen W. "Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) in Special Education--From Intent to Acquiescence." Exceptional Children 57, no. 1 (1990): 6-14.

Strope, John L., and Cathy H. Broadwell. "How P.L. 94-142 Has Fared in the Supreme Court." West's Education Law Reporter 58, no. 1 (1990): 13-28.

*Turnbull, H. Rutherford. Free Appropriate Public Education: The Law and Children With Disabilities. 5th ed. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co., 1998.

*Weintraub, Frederick J., Alan R. Abeson, and David L. Braddock. State Law & Education of Handicapped Children: Issues & Recommendations. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children, 1971.

Yell, Mitchell Louis et al. "Schaffer v. Weast: The Supreme Court on the Burden of Proof in Special Education Due Process Hearings." Intervention in School and Clinic 44, no. 4 (2009): 241-245.

Yell, Mitchell Louis and David W. Walker. "The Legal Basis of Response to Intervention: Analysis and Interpretation." Exceptionality 18, no. 3 (2010): 124-137.

Zirkel, Perry A. and Nico Krohn. "RTI after IDEA: A Survey of State Laws." Teaching Exceptional Children 40, no. 3 (2008): 71-73.


Bilingual Education

*August, Diane, and Kenji Hakuta, eds. Improving Schools for Language Minority Children: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

Baker, Colin. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 4th ed. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters, 2006.

Baron, Dennis. The English-Only Question: An Official Language for Americans. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Blanton, Carlos Kevin. The Strange Career of Bilingual Education in Texas, 1836-1981. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2007.

*Crawford, James. Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice. 4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Bilingual Educational Services, 1999.

*Cummings, Jim. Empowering Minority Students. Sacramento, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education, 1989.

Duke, Robert Harold. "Bilingual Education, Federalism, and the Political Culture of American Public Education, 1964-1980.” Ph.D. dissertation, Western Michigan University, 2008. Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Accession Order No. AAT 3323521.

Epstein, Noel. Language, Ethnicity, and the Schools: Policy Alternatives for Bilingual-Bicultural Education. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership, George Washington University, 1977.

García, Ofelia and Colin Baker, eds. Bilingual Education: An Introductory Reader. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 2007.

García, Ofelia, and Joshua A. Fishman, eds. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997.

Genesee, Fred, et al., eds. Educating English Language Learners: A Synthesis of Research Evidence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Gershberg, Alec Ian, Anne Danenberg, Patricia Sanchez. Beyond "Bilingual" Education: New Immigrants and Public School Policies in California. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006.

Glenn, Charles L. "What Does The National Research Council Study Tell Us About Educating Language Minority Children?" in READ Perspectives 4, no. 1-2 (1997). Notes: Web page available at

González, Josué M., Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2008.

Greene, Jay. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education. Claremont, CA: Tomás Rivera Center, 1998.

*Hakuta, Kenji. Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

*Krashen, Stephen D. Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education. Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates, 1996.

Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education? ERIC Digest." Web page, Available at

Levin, Betsy. "An Analysis of the Federal Attempt to Regulate Bilingual Education: Protecting Civil Rights or Controlling Curriculum?" Journal of Law and Society 12 (1983).

May, Stephen. "Bilingual/Immersion Education: What the Research Tells Us." in Encyclopedia of Language and Education. eds. Nancy H. Hornberger. Springer US, 2008: 1483-1498.

Menken, Kate. English Learners Left Behind: Standardized Testing as Language Policy. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 2008.

Moran, Rachel F. "The Politics of Discretion: Federal Intervention in Bilingual Education." California Law Review 76 (1988): 1249-1352.

*Ramirez, J. David, Sandra D. Yuen, and Dena R. Ramey. Final Report: Longitudinal Study of Structured Immersion Strategy, Early-Exit, and Late-Exit Transitional Bilingual Education Programs for Language Minority Children, Vol. 1 and 2. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International, 1991.

Reyes, Luis O. "The Aspira Consent Decree: A Thirtieth-Anniversary Retrospective of Bilingual Education in New York City." Harvard Educational Review 76, no. 3 (2006): 369-400.

San Miguel, Guadelupe Jr. Contested Policy: The Rise and Fall of Bilingual Education in the United States, 1960-2001. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 2006.

Santiago, Isaura Santiago. "Aspira v Board of Education Revisited." American Journal of Education 95 (1986): 149-199.

*Schneider, Susan Gilbert. Revolution, Reaction, or Reform: The 1974 Bilingual Education Act. New York: Las Americas Publishing Company, 1976.

*U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Equal Educational Opportunity and Nondiscrimination for Students with Limited English Proficiency: Federal Enforcement of Title VI and Lau v Nichols. Washington, DC: The Commission on Civil Rights, 1997. Notes: Volume 3 of the equal educational opportunity project series.

*Watras, Joseph. "Bilingual Education and the Campaign for Federal Aid." American Educational History Journal 27, no. 1 (2000): 81-87.

*Willig, Ann. "A Meta-Analysis of Selected Studies on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education." Review of Educational Research 55, no. 3 (1985): 269-318.