Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The George H.W. Bush Years

Business and Achievement

Education Summit

Goals Panel

America 2000 - Proposed

Systemic Reform

Opportunity to Learn

America 2000 Dies

Grants, Standards, Opportunity

From Desegregation to Racial Imbalance

Common Standards and Special Education

Common Standards and English Language Learners

Charter Schools, Summary



Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the G.H.W. Bush administration, see 1989-1992.