Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The George W. Bush Years

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

NCLB - Sanctions

NCLB - Adequate Yearly Progress

NCLB - Politics of Enactment

NCLB - Supporters and Opponents

Research and Resources

NCLB - Testing, Accountability, and Reading

NCLB - Federal Intervention in School Practice

NCLB - Controversies

NCLB - Bipartisan Support

NCLB - Questions

Assessing the Federal Role



Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the G.W. Bush administrations, see 2001-2004 and 2005-2009.