Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Carter Years

Department of Education

Education Research and Testing

Basic Skills Testing - Pro and Con

Doubts about Innovation

State Testing Spreads

Accountability - Business and Taxpayers

Accountability - States Lead


Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Carter administration, see 1977-1980.