Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Clinton Years

Goals 2000

State Initiatives for Systemic Reform

Goals 2000 - Varied Impact

Improving America's Schools Act

IASA - Assessment and Standards

IASA and School to Work

Goals 2000 and the "Contract for America"

High Stakes Testing and OTL

IASA - Compromises on Compliance

Other Education Legislation

Private and Nonprofit Sector Players

Clinton Years - Summary



Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Clinton administrations, see 1993-1996 and 1997-2000.