Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Eisenhower Years

The Need for Schools and Obstacles to Federal Aid


Distribution of Federal Funds

Opportunities for Children with Disabilities

Sputnik, Defense and International Competition

NDEA Funds in the Schools


Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.

To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Eisenhower administrations, see 1953-1956 and 1957-1960.