Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Johnson Years

Education and Poverty

ESEA Title I - Development

ESEA Title I - Provisions

ESEA Title I - Politics of Distribution

The Quie Amendment

Compensatory Education and Segregation

The Coleman Report - Equal Educational Opportunity

Bilingual Education - ESEA Title VII



Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Johnson administrations, see 1963-1964 and 1965-1968.