Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Nixon Years

Desegregation and Local Control

Challenging ESEA - Title I

Linking Aid to Achievement

Congress and School Desegregation

The Supreme Court and Desegregation, 1972-1973

The Supreme Court and Desegregation, 1974

The Education Amendments of 1974

The Bilingual Education Act of 1974

School Funding - Serrano v. Priest

School Funding - San Antonio v. Rodriguez

School Funding and Federal Courts

Mainstreaming Special Education

Funding Special Education

Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.

To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Nixon administrations, see 1969-1972 and 1973-1974.