Education Policy: Research: Historical Overview:

Federal Education Policy and the States, 1945-2009

The Reagan Years

Education - National Concern, State Responsibility

Block Grants and Local Control

Reduce Federal Role

A Nation at Risk

Federal Aid and Test Scores

Testing and Dropouts

Bennett - Funding and Achievement

Bennett - Data and Cuts

Hawkins-Stafford Amendments

Targeting the Achievement Gap



Footnotes: The PDF version of this essay contains extensive footnotes that include numerous citations and supplementary text. For ease of reading, the footnotes are omitted from this version.

Organizations: Links to many of the organizations mentioned in this essay.


To view snapshots of the political context for the education policy, organized by administration, see Education Policymakers. For the Reagan administrations, see 1981-1984 and 1985-1988.