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Armenian Orphans, Jerusalem, Palestine, 1918

Armenian Orphan Boys in New Khaki Uniforms. Jerusalem, Palestine
New York State Archives, NYSA_A3045-78_5960
Document Description
A group of Armenian orphans in Jerusalem, Palestine, 1918.
How does the appearance of these children differ from other pictures?
What are they wearing?
Why would camp organization be important?
What difficulties might the children still face?
Historical Challenges
Research American philanthropy and determine the nature of the gifts given and to whom the gifts were given.
Interdisciplinary Connections
ELA: Write a report from an orphanage director to someone in the US government describing the situation.
Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris. NY, Perenial, 2003. Barton, James. Story of Near East Relief. MacMillan, 1930.

Historical Context
Between 1915 and 1919, conditions in the Ottoman Empire resulted in a vast humanitarian crisis for Armenians. Among the deportations and mass killings, tens of thousands of children found themselves without parents, shelter, and food and water.

Almost immediately after reports of violence filtered to America, a group of prominent and connected businessmen formed a private committee to raise money for relief efforts in the war torn area. Shortly thereafter, Congress acted and the Near East Relief agency was begun. By the end of 1915, several committees were operating in the US and funneling funds to areas in Turkey, the Caucuses, and Syria. With concerns mounting over the fate of the many foreign relief agencies and schools already in that part of the world, Americans reacted with an outpouring of donations. The organizations operated with efficiency and urgency, generating supplies and creating a stable climate for hundreds of thousands of desperate Armenians.

At the center of the effort were the children. American schools and hospitals were converted to shelters and orphanages in an attempt to secure a safe zone for helping the thousands of displaced children. Organization and structure was paramount to getting assistance to those who needed it the most. And as increased news spoke of the scale of the destruction and devastation of the Armenian people, the pace and scale of relief efforts broadened as well. Eventually, these relief groups are credited with saving the lives of hundreds of thousands of Armenian orphans.

Essential Question
How does war affect children?
Check for Understanding
Describe the condition of these children using evidence from the photograph.