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Kindergarten Class, New York City Public School #9, c. 1900

New York City. Public School #9. West End Ave. & 82nd St. Kindergarten Class
New York State Archives, NYSA_A3045-78_D47_247
Document Description
A kindergarten class at New York City Public School #9 located at West End Avenue & 82nd Street, circa 1900.
What are the parts of the kindergarten classroom? 
What parts are the same as today’s kindergarten classroom? 
What parts are different? 
What do you think was better about kindergarten classrooms then?  What is better now?
Historical Challenges
In what year was the first free kindergarten opened in the United States. Who could attend?
Interdisciplinary Connections
English Language Arts: Create a T-chart showing the differences and similarities of this classroom and the classroom in the photograph titled "Large Kindergarten Classroom."
Jennings, Peter, Jennifer Armstrong, Todd Brewster, and Katherine Bourbeau. The Century for Young People. Bantam Doubleday Dell Books for Young Readers, September 1999. ISBN: 0385327080
DK Publishing. Children's History of the 20th Century. DK Publishing, Inc., August 1999. ISBN: 0789447223
McGovern, Ann. If You Lived 100 Years Ago. Scholastic, Inc., August 1999. ISBN: 0590960016

Historical Context
The philosophy of kindergarten was established by Friedrich Froebel in Germany in the 1830s. He thought that kindergarten children could learn and grow best by having time to play and to interact with other children. Kindergartens were first established as private schools for upper class children.  By the end of the nineteenth century, kindergartens were found in the public schools and were seen as a way to help the children of immigrants and the poor.  The first free public kindergarten class was in Queens, New York.
Essential Question
How does culture influence a society's education system?
Check for Understanding
Describe the scene in the photograph and identify key characteristics of the American education system during this time period.