New York State Archives, NYSA_A3045-78_35
The Penn Treaty Wampum Belt, circa 1911.
What shapes are on these belts?
What do you think the belts are made of?
What patterns do you see on these wampum belts?
Why were pieces of shells used to make these belts?
Why would Native Americans use wampum belts instead of written records to record important events?
How would these beads have been used to tell some oral histories of the Native Americans?
Research the different uses for wampum and explain why they are now universally thought to have been used as money by the Native Americans.
Math: Research different patterns used for wampum belts. Using graph paper, create a wampum belt using an original pattern.
Science: Look at different types of clam shells, including quahog shells. Why do you think the quahog shell was the favorite material for wampum belts.
English Language Arts: Use the design created in math to write or tell a tribal story to the class.
Levine, Ellen. If You Lived at the Time of the Iroquois. Scholastic, Inc., September 1999. ISBN: 0590674455
Tehanetorens, Ray Fadden. Wampum Belts of the Iroquois. Book Publishing Company, June 2000. ISBN: 157067082X
Cornelius, Carol. Iroquois Corn in a Culture - Based Curriculum: A Framework for Respectfully Teaching About Cultures (Social Context of Education). State University of New York Press, June 1999. ISBN: 0791440281